Roguelike Tutorial, using python3+tdl, part 4 code

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This is part of a series of tutorials; the main page can be found here.

The tutorial uses tdl version 3.1.0 and Python 3.5


Field of View (FOV)

#!/usr/bin/env python3
 
import tdl
from random import randint
 
#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50
 
#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45
 
#parameters for dungeon generator
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
MAX_ROOMS = 30
 
 
FOV_ALGO = 'BASIC'
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True
TORCH_RADIUS = 10
 
REALTIME = False
LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum
 
 
color_dark_wall = (0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = (130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = (50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = (200, 180, 50)
 
 
class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight=None):
        self.blocked = blocked
 
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: 
            block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight
 
class Rect:
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
        self.x1 = x
        self.y1 = y
        self.x2 = x + w
        self.y2 = y + h
 
    def center(self):
        center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) // 2
        center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) // 2
        return (center_x, center_y)
 
    def intersect(self, other):
        #returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
        return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
                self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)
 
class GameObject:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, color):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.color = color
 
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not my_map[self.x + dx][self.y + dy].blocked:
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
 
    def draw(self):
        global visible_tiles
 
        #only show if it's visible to the player
        if (self.x, self.y) in visible_tiles:
            #draw the character that represents this object at its position
            con.draw_char(self.x, self.y, self.char, self.color, bg=None)
 
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        con.draw_char(self.x, self.y, ' ', self.color, bg=None)
 
 
def create_room(room):
    global my_map
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
            my_map[x][y].blocked = False
            my_map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
    global my_map
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
        my_map[x][y].blocked = False
        my_map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
    global my_map
    #vertical tunnel
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
        my_map[x][y].blocked = False
        my_map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
 
def is_visible_tile(x, y):
    global my_map
 
    if x >= MAP_WIDTH or x < 0:
        return False
    elif y >= MAP_HEIGHT or y < 0:
        return False
    elif my_map[x][y].blocked == True:
        return False
    elif my_map[x][y].block_sight == True:
        return False
    else:
        return True
 
def make_map():
    global my_map
 
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
    my_map = [[ Tile(True)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
 
    rooms = []
    num_rooms = 0
 
    for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
        #random width and height
        w = randint(ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        h = randint(ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        #random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
        x = randint(0, MAP_WIDTH-w-1)
        y = randint(0, MAP_HEIGHT-h-1)
 
        #"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
        new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)
 
        #run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
        failed = False
        for other_room in rooms:
            if new_room.intersect(other_room):
                failed = True
                break
 
        if not failed:
            #this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid
 
            #"paint" it to the map's tiles
            create_room(new_room)
 
            #center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
            (new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()
 
            if num_rooms == 0:
                #this is the first room, where the player starts at
                player.x = new_x
                player.y = new_y
 
            else:
                #all rooms after the first:
                #connect it to the previous room with a tunnel
 
                #center coordinates of previous room
                (prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()
 
                #draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
                if randint(0, 1):
                    #first move horizontally, then vertically
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
                else:
                    #first move vertically, then horizontally
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)
 
            #finally, append the new room to the list
            rooms.append(new_room)
            num_rooms += 1
 
 
def render_all():
    global fov_recompute
    global visible_tiles
 
    if fov_recompute:
        fov_recompute = False
        visible_tiles = tdl.map.quickFOV(player.x, player.y,
                                         is_visible_tile,
                                         fov=FOV_ALGO,
                                         radius=TORCH_RADIUS,
                                         lightWalls=FOV_LIGHT_WALLS)
 
        #go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
                visible = (x, y) in visible_tiles
                wall = my_map[x][y].block_sight
                if not visible:
                    #it's out of the player's FOV
                    if wall:
                        con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_dark_wall)
                    else:
                        con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_dark_ground)
                else:
                    #it's visible
                    if wall:
                        con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_light_wall)
                    else:
                        con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_light_ground)
 
    #draw all objects in the list
    for obj in objects:
        obj.draw()
 
    #blit the contents of "con" to the root console and present it
    root.blit(con, 0, 0, SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 0, 0)
 
def handle_keys():
    global playerx, playery
    global fov_recompute
 
    if REALTIME:
        keypress = False
        for event in tdl.event.get():
            if event.type == 'KEYDOWN':
               user_input = event
               keypress = True
        if not keypress:
            return
 
    else: #turn-based
        user_input = tdl.event.key_wait()
 
    if user_input.key == 'ENTER' and user_input.alt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        tdl.set_fullscreen(not tdl.get_fullscreen())
 
    elif user_input.key == 'ESCAPE':
        return True  #exit game
 
    #movement keys
    if user_input.key == 'UP':
        player.move(0, -1)
        fov_recompute = True
 
    elif user_input.key == 'DOWN':
        player.move(0, 1)
        fov_recompute = True
 
    elif user_input.key == 'LEFT':
        player.move(-1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True
 
    elif user_input.key == 'RIGHT':
        player.move(1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True
 
 
#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop                #
#############################################
 
tdl.set_font('arial10x10.png', greyscale=True, altLayout=True)
root = tdl.init(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, title="Roguelike", fullscreen=False)
tdl.setFPS(LIMIT_FPS)
con = tdl.Console(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT)
 
#create object representing the player
player = GameObject(SCREEN_WIDTH//2, SCREEN_HEIGHT//2, '@', (255,255,255))
 
#create an NPC
npc = GameObject(SCREEN_WIDTH//2 - 5, SCREEN_HEIGHT//2, '@', (255,255,0))
 
#the list of objects with those two
objects = [npc, player]
 
#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()
 
fov_recompute = True
 
while not tdl.event.is_window_closed():
 
    #draw all objects in the list
    render_all()
 
    tdl.flush()
 
    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for obj in objects:
        obj.clear()
 
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    exit_game = handle_keys()
    if exit_game:
        break


Exploration

#!/usr/bin/env python3
 
import tdl
from random import randint
 
#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50
 
#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45
 
#parameters for dungeon generator
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
MAX_ROOMS = 30
 
 
FOV_ALGO = 'BASIC'
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True
TORCH_RADIUS = 10
 
REALTIME = False
LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum
 
 
color_dark_wall = (0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = (130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = (50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = (200, 180, 50)
 
 
class Tile:
    #a tile of the map and its properties
    def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight=None):
        self.blocked = blocked
 
        #all tiles start unexplored
        self.explored = False
 
        #by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
        if block_sight is None: 
            block_sight = blocked
        self.block_sight = block_sight
 
class Rect:
    #a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
    def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
        self.x1 = x
        self.y1 = y
        self.x2 = x + w
        self.y2 = y + h
 
    def center(self):
        center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) // 2
        center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) // 2
        return (center_x, center_y)
 
    def intersect(self, other):
        #returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
        return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
                self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)
 
class GameObject:
    #this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
    #it's always represented by a character on screen.
    def __init__(self, x, y, char, color):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.char = char
        self.color = color
 
    def move(self, dx, dy):
        #move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
        if not my_map[self.x + dx][self.y + dy].blocked:
            self.x += dx
            self.y += dy
 
    def draw(self):
        global visible_tiles
 
        #only show if it's visible to the player
        if (self.x, self.y) in visible_tiles:
            #draw the character that represents this object at its position
            con.draw_char(self.x, self.y, self.char, self.color, bg=None)
 
    def clear(self):
        #erase the character that represents this object
        con.draw_char(self.x, self.y, ' ', self.color, bg=None)
 
 
def create_room(room):
    global my_map
    #go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
    for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
        for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
            my_map[x][y].blocked = False
            my_map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
    global my_map
    for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
        my_map[x][y].blocked = False
        my_map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
    global my_map
    #vertical tunnel
    for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
        my_map[x][y].blocked = False
        my_map[x][y].block_sight = False
 
 
def is_visible_tile(x, y):
    global my_map
 
    if x >= MAP_WIDTH or x < 0:
        return False
    elif y >= MAP_HEIGHT or y < 0:
        return False
    elif my_map[x][y].blocked == True:
        return False
    elif my_map[x][y].block_sight == True:
        return False
    else:
        return True
 
def make_map():
    global my_map
 
    #fill map with "blocked" tiles
    my_map = [[ Tile(True)
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]
 
    rooms = []
    num_rooms = 0
 
    for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
        #random width and height
        w = randint(ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        h = randint(ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
        #random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
        x = randint(0, MAP_WIDTH-w-1)
        y = randint(0, MAP_HEIGHT-h-1)
 
        #"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
        new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)
 
        #run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
        failed = False
        for other_room in rooms:
            if new_room.intersect(other_room):
                failed = True
                break
 
        if not failed:
            #this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid
 
            #"paint" it to the map's tiles
            create_room(new_room)
 
            #center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
            (new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()
 
            if num_rooms == 0:
                #this is the first room, where the player starts at
                player.x = new_x
                player.y = new_y
 
            else:
                #all rooms after the first:
                #connect it to the previous room with a tunnel
 
                #center coordinates of previous room
                (prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()
 
                #draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
                if randint(0, 1):
                    #first move horizontally, then vertically
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
                else:
                    #first move vertically, then horizontally
                    create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
                    create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)
 
            #finally, append the new room to the list
            rooms.append(new_room)
            num_rooms += 1
 
 
def render_all():
    global fov_recompute
    global visible_tiles
 
    if fov_recompute:
        fov_recompute = False
        visible_tiles = tdl.map.quickFOV(player.x, player.y,
                                         is_visible_tile,
                                         fov=FOV_ALGO,
                                         radius=TORCH_RADIUS,
                                         lightWalls=FOV_LIGHT_WALLS)
 
        #go through all tiles, and set their background color  according to the FOV
        for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
            for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
                visible = (x, y) in visible_tiles
                wall = my_map[x][y].block_sight
                if not visible:
                    #if it's not visible right now, the player can only see it if it's explored
                    if my_map[x][y].explored:
                        if wall:
                            con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_dark_wall)
                        else:
                            con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_dark_ground)
                else:
                    if wall:
                        con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_light_wall)
                    else:
                        con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_light_ground)
                    #since it's visible, explore it
                    my_map[x][y].explored = True
 
 
    #draw all objects in the list
    for obj in objects:
        obj.draw()
 
    #blit the contents of "con" to the root console and present it
    root.blit(con, 0, 0, SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 0, 0)
 
def handle_keys():
    global playerx, playery
    global fov_recompute
 
    if REALTIME:
        keypress = False
        for event in tdl.event.get():
            if event.type == 'KEYDOWN':
               user_input = event
               keypress = True
        if not keypress:
            return
 
    else: #turn-based
        user_input = tdl.event.key_wait()
 
    if user_input.key == 'ENTER' and user_input.alt:
        #Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
        tdl.set_fullscreen(True)
 
    elif user_input.key == 'ESCAPE':
        return True  #exit game
 
    #movement keys
    if user_input.key == 'UP':
        player.move(0, -1)
        fov_recompute = True
 
    elif user_input.key == 'DOWN':
        player.move(0, 1)
        fov_recompute = True
 
    elif user_input.key == 'LEFT':
        player.move(-1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True
 
    elif user_input.key == 'RIGHT':
        player.move(1, 0)
        fov_recompute = True
 
 
#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop                #
#############################################
 
tdl.set_font('arial10x10.png', greyscale=True, altLayout=True)
root = tdl.init(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, title="Roguelike", fullscreen=False)
tdl.setFPS(LIMIT_FPS)
con = tdl.Console(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT)
 
#create object representing the player
player = GameObject(SCREEN_WIDTH//2, SCREEN_HEIGHT//2, '@', (255,255,255))
 
#create an NPC
npc = GameObject(SCREEN_WIDTH//2 - 5, SCREEN_HEIGHT//2, '@', (255,255,0))
 
#the list of objects with those two
objects = [npc, player]
 
#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()
 
fov_recompute = True
 
while not tdl.event.is_window_closed():
 
    #draw all objects in the list
    render_all()
 
    tdl.flush()
 
    #erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
    for obj in objects:
        obj.clear()
 
    #handle keys and exit game if needed
    exit_game = handle_keys()
    if exit_game:
        break
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