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C++ (pronounced "see plus plus") is a general-purpose intermediate-level computer programming language. It is a statically typed free-form multi-paradigm language supporting procedural programming, data abstraction, object-oriented programming, and generic programming. Strictly speaking, C++ is not a superset of C, but for all practical purposes one can consider it thus.

During the 1990s, C++ became one of the most popular commercial programming languages, and it is still widely used today. Recently, however, more modern high-level scripting languages such as Python and Ruby are enjoying increasing popularity.

Differences in C++ from C

Features introduced in C++ include declarations as statements, function-like casts, new/delete, bool, reference types, const, inline functions, default arguments, function overloading, namespaces, classes (including all class-related features such as inheritance, member functions, virtual functions, abstract classes, and constructors), operator overloading, templates, the :: operator, exception handling, and run-time type identification.

C++ also performs more type checking than C in several cases.

Comments starting with two slashes ("//") were originally part of C's predecessor, BCPL, and were reintroduced in C++.

Several features of C++ were later adopted by C, including const, inline, declarations in for loops, and C++-style comments (using the // symbol). However, C99 also introduced features that do not exist in C++, such as variadic macros and better handling of arrays as parameters.

Design of C++

In The Design and Evolution of C++ ISBN 0-201-54330-3, Bjarne Stroustrup describes some rules that he uses for the design of C++. Knowing the rules helps to understand why C++ is the way it is. The following is a summary of the rules. Much more detail can be found in The Design and Evolution of C++.

  • C++ is designed to be a statically typed, general-purpose language that is as efficient and portable as C
  • C++ is designed to directly and comprehensively support multiple programming styles (procedural programming, data abstraction, object-oriented programming, and generic programming)
  • C++ is designed to give the programmer choice, even if this makes it possible for the programmer to choose incorrectly
  • C++ is designed to be as compatible with C as possible, therefore providing a smooth transition from C
  • C++ avoids features that are platform specific or not general purpose
  • C++ does not incur overhead for features that are not used
  • C++ is designed to function without a sophisticated programming environment

Please refer to the indepth book on C++ Internals by Stanley B. Lippman (he worked on implementing/maintaining C-front the original C++ implementation at Bell Labs). "Inside the C++ Object Model" documents how the C++ compiler converts your program statements into an in-memory layout.

Roguelike Specific Details

C++ is a great language to write a rogue-like with. It has all the freedom of C, with some additional language features which can make a programmer's life easier (such as templates and classes).

C++ Roguelikes

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